According to first principle of biological level of analysis, there are biological correlates of behavior. The hormone oxytocin is secreted by the hypothalamus and released into the blood stream via the pituitary gland or into the brain and spinal cord where it unites with oxytocin receptors; it mostly acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. Oxytocin is responsible for trust between people. Experimental manipulation of this hormone has shown change in levels of trust.
According to evolutionary psychology, trust is a vital tool in the relationship between humans; also it is an adaptive mechanism meaning that disloyalty will break the bonds between individuals.
Baumgartner et al. (2008) has conducted an experimental research where he was aiming to investigate the role of oxytocin in trust in economic behavior. Participants were the economists and neuroscientists were to play a “trust” game and amongst the participants there were two groups: placebo and those who received oxytocin via nasal spray. The results were obtained through the fMRI scans whether the participant received placebo or the actual hormone. The placebo group showed less trust during the game comparing to those who received oxytocin. From this experiment, it can be evaluated that oxytocin could be the explanation to why people have the ability to restore their trust for someone and be able to forgive in the long-term relationship. Also, the brain mapping is not definite however there is still a correlation between trust and oxytocin. Although, biological psychology applies the principle of reductionism still it is too simplistic if we were to establish a direct link between trust and oxytocin.
Sebastião Salgado (born February 8, 1944) is a Brazilian social documentary photographer and photojournalist.
Brazilian photographer Sebastião Salgado spent much of the past nine years trekking to the last wild places on earth to take the pictures collected in his new photography book, Genesis, a window into the primordial corners of creation.
The Genesis project grew out of two dilemmas in Salgado’s personal life. In the late 1990s, his father gave him and his wife Lélia the Brazilian cattle ranch where Salgado, now 69, spent his childhood. He remembers the place in those days as “a complete paradise, more than 50% of it covered with rain forest,” he told Time on the phone from his home in Paris. “We had incredible birds, jaguars, crocodiles.” But after decades of deforestation, the property had become an ecological disaster: “Not only my farm, the entire region. Erosion, no water—it was a dead land.”
Everybody knows that when doing IB, there is an interesting and quite controversial subject. Quite frankly, I have no spare time to write a long meaningful blog post hence I would like to share with you the beginning of my ToK essay 🙂
“Approaching an area of knowledge has to have its own method. Human culture is widely varied and it has recognized many areas of knowledge such as religion, art, history and so therefore there have been created different ways of gaining knowledge. Additionally, humankind has found ways in which the information can be obtained from these sources; the ways are such as sense perception, logic and reasoning, emotion and so on. It’s quite obvious that each area of knowledge would need to have a different and unique approach and this can sum up what Abraham Maslow is claiming in the quote above. For instance, if we take the example provided by Mr. Maslow, one can easily hammer down the screw but there is a greater chance that the screw may break what it is being hammered in hence the problem would not be solved. Emotion and reason are different in gaining knowledge consequently they should be applied in different areas, for instance in ethics it would be likely to utilize logic same as emotion in arts, however what would happen if ways of knowing were applied in a different area of knowledge hence how radically would the outcome change?
Emotion is a subjective way of knowing based on physiology or psychology of the person. Life without emotions is unheard of because of the cultural values and traditions, which are based upon the emotion. A common saying “listen to your heart” refers to the person following the gut instinct with little or no utilization of reason and logic. The hammer is a connotation of emotion as a way of knowing because when applying emotion in an area of knowledge like ethics a conflict may arise. “
Over the Christmas break, in my city (Almaty) we got plenty of snow and almost every day my little sister, Dariya, made me go outside with her to build a snowman. Though our walks always ended with us fighting in the snow, we did build one at last… Here’s a series of picture of my little sister messing around in the snow.
Voilà our snowman!
I recently discovered a young singer, Jhene Aiko, who seems to becoming more popular in ever-changing and expanding music industry. Personally, I am not the biggest fan of songs which have too many words, I prefer something quite simple like a Lounge genre of music but talented Jhene Aiko is definitely worth changing old music habits for. Her soothing voice and the deep meaning behind every word she sings is what makes me like her music. She worked together with Drake, a famous rapper, on a few songs, and one that appealed to me most is “From Time”, where both artists sing about relationship issues and things that have happened to them in the past which made them what they are today.
Though it is important to study a lot and work hard, remember to take some time to listen to good music.
Unfortunately, I was unable to post on the 20th of November due to not feeling so well. I would like to dedicate this post to my caring, attentive roommates Yulia, Nastia and Nataxa. Like in any other room of the boarding house, we have our own little rules; for example, Natasha is the first one to wake up at 6 o’clock in the morning to take a shower, no one takes it before her, after her is Nastia at 6.20 and I am the last one at 6.50. Yulia only takes it before going to sleep. Though it may seem like nothing special, still this has become our daily routine which makes our room function… and of course there are many more traditions in our room which make living with these girls much more special.
I am especially thankful for the fact that they were taking care of me when i was not feeling physically and emotionally well. For instance, Nastia brought me medicine for my throat when I needed it the most, meanwhile Natasha made me laugh, supported me emotionally and Yulia tried to keep me busy and occupied in order not to think about certain things.
Yulia and Natasha have been close friends of mine for two years now and one of the things they strongly believe in is karma. I cannot agree more with the whole idea of karma, to be honest: everything that we do nowadays will reflect in some way to us in future. Maybe it won’t happen to us today but it will definitely happen at some point in our lives. One unpleasant word may hurt someone so deeply that they will find it hard to forgive the person who hurt them. The point when the person forgives and lets go of the hurtful things that have been done to them it is then when karma starts working. In my opinion, it is important to act like a mirror in life. Whatever people wish you, always wish twice as much to them. So always make sure that your close ones know that you care about them and don’t take for granted those whom you see every day.
Last week before the mid-term break and I am already going crazy. Only a few days ago, I was so emotional that I would laugh and cry at the same time. My teachers already warned me that November will be a “hell of a month” for victims of IB. Looking forward to October break and hoping to get plenty of sleep… Thank God that ToK essays have already been turned in…
About a week ago, in my English class the teacher decided to let us watch a movie called “A Beautiful Mind”, which had won several awards, and the Oscar was one of them. After a while, I decided to conduct a mini research about the Oscar awards and all of the movies that ever won the prize in the whole history of cinematography, so I decided to watch few.
I stumbled upon a movie that was filmed 2 years ago but in an old fashioned manner, and that movie had won an Oscar award. The title is “The Artist”, and it is filmed black and white and silent. The genre is comedy with a slight hint of both drama and romance. The plot is easy to follow and obviously, without any voices, there are only instrumental music and sound effects.
I was never the kind of person who would be passionate for films, especially silent or black and white. Whenever, YOU (the reader of this blog entry) have an extra minute of free time, please use itto watch “The Artist”, you will not regret it and may thank me later.